手把手教你发布代码到CocoaPods

目录

  • 前言
  • CocoaPods原理
  • 发布与更新自己的pod
    • 安装CocoaPods
    • 创建编辑自己的pod
    • 本地初始化pod并提交到Github
    • 注册CocoaPods并提交pod
    • 更新自己的pod
  • 其他命令

前言

最近App在整理一些第三方库,包括一些没怎么再维护的替换为自己实现,所以做了一些简单的库上传到CocoaPods方便管理和维护。

CocoaPods原理

每种语言发展到一定阶段,就会出现相应的依赖管理工具,例如Node.js的npm、Swift的Swift Package Manager,早期为iOS提供依赖管理的工具叫做:CocoaPods。

特点:

  • CocoaPods会将所有的第三方库以target的方式组成一个名为Pods的工程。整个第三方库工程会生成一个库提供给我们使用。
  • 我们的工程和Pods工程会被以workspace的形式组织和管理,也就是*.xcworkspace文件。

好处:

  • CocoaPods上有很多好用的库,以此缩短我们的开发周期和提升软件的质量。
  • CocoaPods会自动将第三方开源库的源码下载下来,并且为工程设置好相应的系统依赖和编译参数。
  • 通过Podfile可以很方便地更新第三方库。

发布与更新自己的pod

下面以我提交的库ZInAppPurchase为例,讲解下整个过程和遇到的问题。

参考官方文档Making CocoaPods

安装CocoaPods

CocoaPods是用Ruby实现的,而Gem是一个管理Ruby库和程序的标准包,它通过Ruby Gem源来查找、安装、升级和卸载软件包。

  • 更新Gem

如果没有翻墙可能会比较慢,可以将原来的源替换成新的。

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// 查看本机当前设置的源
ZackZhengdeMacBook-Pro:~ zack$ gem source -l
*** CURRENT SOURCES ***

https://rubygems.org/
// 移除掉原有的源
ZackZhengdeMacBook-Pro:~ zack$ gem sources --remove https://rubygems.org/
// 添加国内的源
ZackZhengdeMacBook-Pro:~ zack$ gem sources -a https://ruby.taobao.org/

淘宝的源已不再维护,可以使用新的源,参考RubyGems 镜像 - Ruby China

接下来更新Gem:

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ZackZhengdeMacBook-Pro:~ zack$ sudo gem update --system

  • 安装并初始化CocoaPods
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ZackZhengdeMacBook-Pro:~ zack$ sudo gem install cocoapods --pre
Password:
Successfully installed cocoapods-1.1.0.rc.3
Parsing documentation for cocoapods-1.1.0.rc.3
Done installing documentation for cocoapods after 2 seconds
1 gem installed

使用 –pre 是为了尽量使用最新的版本,没更新时遇到过pod lib lint发生下面错误的情况:

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xcodebuild: error: 'App.xcworkspace' does not exist.

初始化:

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ZackZhengdeMacBook-Pro:~ zack$ pod setup
Setting up CocoaPods master repo
$ /usr/bin/git -C /Users/zack/.cocoapods/repos/master pull --ff-only
From https://github.com/CocoaPods/Specs
cae692c..3231da7 master -> origin/master
Updating cae692c..3231da7
Fast-forward
......
Setup completed

所有项目的Podspec文件都托管在 https://github.com/CocoaPods/Specs 第一次执行 pod setup时,CocoaPods会将这些podspec索引文件更新到本地的 ~/.cocoapods/目录下,这个索引文件比较大。网上有讲解更换repo镜像的方法。

创建编辑自己的pod

使用pod lib的命令。

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ZackZhengdeMacBook-Pro:~ zack$ pod lib create ZInAppPurchase
Cloning `https://github.com/CocoaPods/pod-template.git` into `ZInAppPurchase`.
Configuring ZInAppPurchase template.

------------------------------

To get you started we need to ask a few questions, this should only take a minute.

If this is your first time we recommend running through with the guide:
- http://guides.cocoapods.org/making/using-pod-lib-create.html
( hold cmd and double click links to open in a browser. )


What language do you want to use?? [ Swift / ObjC ]
> Swift

Would you like to include a demo application with your library? [ Yes / No ]
> Yes

Which testing frameworks will you use? [ Quick / None ]
> None

Would you like to do view based testing? [ Yes / No ]
> No

Running pod install on your new library.

Analyzing dependencies
Fetching podspec for `ZInAppPurchase` from `../`
Downloading dependencies
Installing ZInAppPurchase (0.1.0)
Generating Pods project
Integrating client project

[!] Please close any current Xcode sessions and use `ZInAppPurchase.xcworkspace` for this project from now on.
Sending stats
Pod installation complete! There is 1 dependency from the Podfile and 1 total pod installed.

Ace! you're ready to go!
We will start you off by opening your project in Xcode
open 'ZInAppPurchase/Example/ZInAppPurchase.xcworkspace'

To learn more about the template see `https://github.com/CocoaPods/pod-template.git`.
To learn more about creating a new pod, see `http://guides.cocoapods.org/making/making-a-cocoapod`.

修改文件:

/Users/zack/ZInAppPurchase/ZInAppPurchase/Classes/ReplaceMe.swift
/Users/zack/ZInAppPurchase/ZInAppPurchase.podspec

*.podspec文件主要是修改s.homepages.sources.frameworks

ZInAppPurchase.podspec内容如下:

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Pod::Spec.new do |s|
s.name = 'ZInAppPurchase'
s.version = '0.1.1'
s.summary = 'A short description of ZInAppPurchase.'

s.description = <<-DESC
TODO: Add long description of the pod here.
DESC

s.homepage = 'https://github.com/sapphirezzz/ZInAppPurchase'
s.license = { :type => 'MIT', :file => 'LICENSE' }
s.author = { 'sapphirezzz' => 'zhengzuanzhe@gmail.com' }
s.source = { :git => 'https://github.com/sapphirezzz/ZInAppPurchase.git', :tag => s.version.to_s }

s.ios.deployment_target = '8.0'

s.source_files = 'ZInAppPurchase/Classes/**/*'
s.frameworks = 'Foundation', 'StoreKit'
end

安装pod:

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ZackZhengdeMacBook-Pro:~ zack$ cd ZInAppPurchase/Example/
ZackZhengdeMacBook-Pro:Example zack$ pod install
Analyzing dependencies
Fetching podspec for `ZInAppPurchase` from `../`
Downloading dependencies
Installing ZInAppPurchase 0.1.0 (was 0.1.0)
Generating Pods project
Integrating client project
Sending stats
Pod installation complete! There is 1 dependency from the Podfile and 1 total pod installed.

此时会看到工程目录下多出ZInAppPurchase.xcworkspace、Podfile.lock文件和Pods目录。

接下来可以打开下面文件编写库:

/Users/zack/ZInAppPurchase/Example/ZInAppPurchase.xcworkspace

本地初始化pod并提交到Github

先到Github建立仓库ZInAppPurchase,并提交代码:

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ZackZhengdeMacBook-Pro:ZInAppPurchase zack$ git add -A && git commit -m "Release 0.1.0"
ZackZhengdeMacBook-Pro:ZInAppPurchase zack$ git tag '0.1.1'
ZackZhengdeMacBook-Pro:ZInAppPurchase zack$ git remote add origin git@github.com:sapphirezzz/ZInAppPurchase.git
ZackZhengdeMacBook-Pro:ZInAppPurchase zack$ git push --tags
ZackZhengdeMacBook-Pro:ZInAppPurchase zack$ git push origin master

初始化pod:

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ZackZhengdeMacBook-Pro:ZInAppPurchase zack$ pod lib lint --allow-warnings

-> ZInAppPurchase (0.1.0)
- WARN | summary: The summary is not meaningful.

ZInAppPurchase passed validation.

使用–allow-warnings是使得有warning时也能验证通过。比如:WARN | summary: The summary is not meaningful.

注册CocoaPods并提交pod

先注册:

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ZackZhengdeMacBook-Pro:ZInAppPurchase zack$ pod trunk register zhengzuanzhe@gmail.com 'zackzheng' --description='macbook pro'
[!] Please verify the session by clicking the link in the verification email that has been sent to zhengzuanzhe@gmail.com

然后打开收到的标题为[CocoaPods] Confirm your session.的邮件,点击链接之后跳转页面,会看到:

You can go back to your terminal now.

最后就deploy了:

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ZackZhengdeMacBook-Pro:ZInAppPurchase zack$ pod trunk push ZInAppPurchase.podspec --allow-warnings
Updating spec repo `master`
Validating podspec
-> ZInAppPurchase (0.1.0)
- WARN | summary: The summary is not meaningful.

Updating spec repo `master`
- Data URL: https://raw.githubusercontent.com/CocoaPods/Specs/ae961ca47afb2a9171653382214897c4e160a679/Specs/ZInAppPurchase/0.1.0/ZInAppPurchase.podspec.json
- Log messages:
- October 13th, 11:28: Push for `ZInAppPurchase 0.1.0' initiated.
- October 13th, 11:28: Push for `ZInAppPurchase 0.1.0' has been pushed
(1.423909231 s).

看看库是否已经可以找到:

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ZackZhengdeMacBook-Pro:ZInAppPurchase zack$ pod search ZInAppPurchase
-> ZInAppPurchase (0.1.0)
A short description of ZInAppPurchase.
pod 'ZInAppPurchase', '~> 0.1.0'
- Homepage: https://github.com/sapphirezzz/ZInAppPurchase
- Source: https://github.com/sapphirezzz/ZInAppPurchase.git
- Versions: 0.1.0 [master repo]
(END)

组合键shift+Q退出

更新自己的pod

修改完代码之后,提交到Github并push到CocoaPods:

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ZackZhengdeMacBook-Pro:ZInAppPurchase zack$ git add -A && git commit -m 
ZackZhengdeMacBook-Pro:ZInAppPurchase zack$ git tag '0.1.1'
ZackZhengdeMacBook-Pro:ZInAppPurchase zack$ git push --tags
ZackZhengdeMacBook-Pro:ZInAppPurchase zack$ pod trunk push ZInAppPurchase.podspec --allow-warnings
Updating spec repo `master`
Validating podspec
-> ZInAppPurchase (0.1.1)
- WARN | summary: The summary is not meaningful.

Updating spec repo `master`
- Data URL: https://raw.githubusercontent.com/CocoaPods/Specs/1fba9c650a4212c0b7be707698b8597556f0ece7/Specs/ZInAppPurchase/0.1.1/ZInAppPurchase.podspec.json
- Log messages:
- October 13th, 12:42: Push for `ZInAppPurchase 0.1.1' initiated.
- October 13th, 12:43: Push for `ZInAppPurchase 0.1.1' has been pushed
(1.090057228 s).

其他命令

查看CocoaPods上的个人信息:

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ZackZhengdeMacBook-Pro:ZInAppPurchase zack$ pod trunk me
- Name: Zackzheng
- Email: zhengzuanzhe@gmail.com
- Since: May 30th, 21:28
- Pods:
- ZInAppPurchase
- ZPlaceholderTextView
- ZPopTipView
- Sessions:
- May 30th, 21:28 - October 6th, 00:10. IP: 14.18.48.167

- September 28th, 02:06 - February 18th, 2017 10:43. IP: 121.33.185.113
Description: macbook pro
- October 13th, 11:24 - February 18th, 2017 11:31. IP: 183.240.19.242
Description: macbook pro

有时候如果提交有问题,可以执行一下命令删除:

// 直接废去这个pod

pod trunk deprecate ZInAppPurchase

// 废去这个pod的某个版本

pod trunk delete ZInAppPurchase 1.0.0

测试过,两个命令使用完都没返回成功,且pod search是可以找到的,但实际却是成功的。

-END-
欢迎到我的博客交流:https://zackzheng.info